Exploration-Characterization Morphology of Local Cocoa On Bangka Island

Eksplorasi-Karakterisasi Morfologi Tanaman Kakao Lokal Di Pulau Bangka

Authors

  • Maera Zasari Universitas Bangka Belitung
  • Rostiar Sitorus Universitas Bangka Belitung

Keywords:

Exploration-Characterization, Cocoa, Morphology, Bangka

Abstract

The diversity of genetic material determines the success of cocoa production. improvement and breeding programs. Enrichment of genetic material for Bangka cocoa can be achieved through exploration and characterization of morphological features or characters of accessions, clones, and/or varieties. To determine the level of diversity of qualitative and quantitative traits. Morphological exploration and characterization was aimed at identifying the diversity of Bangka cocoa as an effort to increase the efficiency of utilization of local genetic material. The research used survey, and direct characterization (purposive sampling). Exploration to obtain a cocoa plant passport consists of accession number, accession name, location of origin, owner's name, age of plant, and land area. Characterization to obtain the identity of qualitative and quantitative characters from leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds refers to “The Systematic Description of Cacao Clones. The results of the exploration-characterization obtained 29 accessions of cocoa from Bangka, which had very diverse morphological characters. Diversity is evidenced by wide phenotypic variability even though it has narrow genetic variability, and the similarity level of some accessions is quite low, namely <50%.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Anderson R, Bancroft T. 1952. Statistical Theory in Research. New York USA: Mc Graw Hill Book Company. 399 p.

Anita-Sari I, Susilo AW. 2014. Keragaan Beberapa Genotipe Harapan Kakao Mulia Hasil Seleksi di Kebun Penataran, Jawa Timur [Performance of Some Promising Genotypes of Fine-flavour Cocoa Selected at Penataran Estate, East Java]. Pelita Perkeb. 30(2):81– 91.

Anita-Sari I, Zakariyya F, Susilo AW. 2015. Relationship between Physiological Characteristic and Bean Quality on Some Cocoa Clones (Theobroma cacao L.). Pelita Perkeb. (a Coffee Cocoa Res. Journal). 31(3):143–151.

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2019. Statistik Kakao Indonesia 2018. Sub Direktorat Statistik Tanaman Perkebunan, editor. Sub Direktorat Statistik Tanaman Perkebunan.

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2020. Statistik Kakao Indonesia 2019. Sub Direktorat Statistik Tanaman Perkebunan, editor. Sub Direktorat Statistik Tanaman Perkebunan.

Carr MKV, Lockwood G. 2011. The water relations and irrigation requirements of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.): A review. Exp. Agric. 47(4):653–676.

Cuervo-Parra JA, Sanchez-Lopez V, Ramirez-Suero M, Ramirez-Lepe M. 2011. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Moniliophthora roreri Causal Agent of Frosty Pod Rot of Cocoa Tree in Tabasco , Mexico. Plant Pathol. J. 10(3):122–127.

Daud Z, Awang H, Angzzas Sari MK, Mohd Zainuri MH, dan Ashuvila MA. 2014. Cocoa Pod Husk and Corn Stalk: Alternative Paper Fibres Study on Chemical Characterization and Morphological Structures. Advanced Materials Research, Vol 911. pp 331-335.

Direktorat Jendral Perkebunan. 2016. Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia: Kakao 2015-2017. Hendaryati D, Arianto Y, WK Z, Pudjianto E, Udin A, Kurniawati N, Damarjati S, Magdalena E, editor. Ditjenbun.

Engels JMM. 1986. The systematic description of cacao clones and its significance for taxonomy and plant breeding: 125.

Goenaga R, Guiltinan M, Maximova S, Seguine E, Irizarry H. 2015. Yield performance and bean quality traits of cacao propagated by grafting and somatic embryo-derived cuttings. HortScience. 50(3):358–362.

Izzah NK, Martono B, Baharuddin, Wardiana E. 2018. Keragaman Genetik Klon Kakao Lokal Sulawesi Tenggara Berdasarkan Marka Ssr Dan Karakter Morfologi. J. indrustrial beverage Crop. 5(3):95–104.

Jaimez RE, Araque O, Guzman D, Mora A, Espinoza W, Tezara W. 2013. Agroforestry systems of timber species and cacao: Survival and growth during the early stages. J. Agric. Rural Dev. Trop. Subtrop. 114(1):1–11.

Lopes UV, Monteiro WR, Pires JL, Clement D, Yamada MM, Gramacho KP. 2011. Cacao breeding in Bahia, Brazil: strategies and results. Crop Breeding Application Biotechnology. 11(spe):73–81.

N’Zi JC, Kahia J, Diby L, Kouamé C. 2017. Compatibility of ten elite cocoa (Theobroma cacao l.) clones. Horticulturae. 3(3):1–8.

Nurbani, S. (2015). Eksplorasi dan karakterisasi tumbuhan mekai sebagai penyedap rasa di Kabupaten Bulungan, Provinsi Kalimantan Utara. Seminar Nasional Masyarakat Biodiversitas Indonesia, 1(2):, 201–206.

Pujiyanto. 2015. Kesesuaian lahan kakao : Kakao Sejarah, Botani, Proses Produksi, Pengolahan, Perdagangan. Wahyudi T, Pujiyanto, Misnawi, editor. Yogyakarta: UGM Press.

Rubiyo. 2013. Inovasi Teknologi Perbaikan Bahan Tanam. Bul. RISTRI. 4(3):199–214. Santos RC, Pires JL, Correa RX. 2012. Morphological characterization of leaf, flower, fruit and seed traits among Brazilian Theobroma L. species. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 59(3):327–345.

Sahardi, Djufry F. 2016. Keragaman Karakteristik Morfologis Dan Agronomis Plasma Nutfah Klon Harapan Kakao Lokal Sulawesi Selatan. J. Peneliti. Tanam. Ind. 21(3):145.

Santos RC, Pires JL, Correa RX. 2012. Morphological characterization of leaf, flower, fruit and seed traits among Brazilian Theobroma L. species. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 59(3):327–345.

Santos RFM, Lopes UV, Clement D, Pires JL, Lima EM, Messias TB, Gramacho KP. 2014. A protocol for large scale genomic DNA isolation for cacao genetics analysis. African J. Biotechnol. 13(7):814–820.

Sumilia, Nasrez A, Zulfadly S. 2019. Cocoa Productivity and Plant Diversity on Various Cocoa based Agroforestry System in Pasaman District, West Sumatra. Jurnal Agroforestri Indonesia. 2 (2): 51-62.

Susilo A. 2015. Bahan Tanam Kakao: Kakao Sejarah, Botani, Proses Produksi, Pengolahan, Perdagangan. Wahyudi T, Pujiyanto, Misnawi, editor. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. 739 p.

Syukur M, Sujiprihati S, Yunianti R, Kusumah DA. 2011. Pendugaan ragam genetik dan heritabilitas karakter komponen hasil beberapa genotipe cabai. Agrivigor. 10(2):148–156.

Sobir, Syukur M. 2015. Genetika Tanaman. Bogor: IPB Press. 305 hlm

Viet Ha LT, Hang PT, Everaert H, Rottiers H, Anh LPT, Dung TN, Phuoc PHD, Toan HT, Dewettinck K, Messens K. 2016. Characterization of leaf, flower, and pod morphology among vietnamese cocoa varieties (Theobroma cacao L.). Pakistan J. Bot. 48(6):2375–2383.

Wahyudi T, Misnawi. 2015. Sejarah, perkembangan penelitian, dan prospek kakao : Kakao Sejarah, Botani, Proses Produksi, Pengolahan, Perdagangan. Wahyudi T, Pujiyanto, Misnawi, editor. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Zasari M, Wachjar ADE, Susilo AW, Sudarsono S. 2020. Prope legitimate rootstocks determine the selection criteria for drought- tolerant cocoa. 21(9):4067–4075.

Zhang D, Motilal L. 2016. Origin, dispersal, and current global distribution of cacao genetic diversity. Di dalam: Bailey B, Meinhardt L, editor. Cacao Deseases, A History of Old Enemies and New Encounters. Spriger International Publishing Switzerland. hlm. 3–30.

Downloads

Published

2022-06-30

How to Cite

Zasari, M. and Sitorus, R. (2022) “Exploration-Characterization Morphology of Local Cocoa On Bangka Island: Eksplorasi-Karakterisasi Morfologi Tanaman Kakao Lokal Di Pulau Bangka”, AGROSAINSTEK: Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pertanian, 6(1), pp. 23–33. Available at: http://agrosainstek.ubb.ac.id/index.php/agrosainstek/article/view/356 (Accessed: 14August2022).